Report on AAAI Spring Symposium on Shikakeology

AAAI Spring Symposium on Shikakeology: Designing Triggers for Behavior Change was held at Stanford University, Stanford California from March 25-27, 2013. The goal of this symposium was to gain a holistic understanding of Shikake in terms of principles, behavior change triggers, sustained behavior change, as well as exchange findings from case studies, approaches to design simple and complex Shikake.


How do you trigger learning by seeing? How do you encourage eco-conscious behaviors? How do you trigger health awareness? How do you encourage crime prevention?


Our answer is “A shikake”. A shikake is a Japanese word with various meanings related to triggers for behavior change, but in Shikakeology it is defined as having the following three elements or features to clarify its meaning; 1) an embodied trigger for behavior change, 2) the trigger is designed to induce a specific behavior, and 3) the behavior deals with a social or personal issue. The embodied trigger is designed so that it is expected to be perceived and desirable. However, a shikake should be designed so as to not entice or trick anyone but to explicitly or implicitly encourage people to change their behavior by presenting possible alternative behaviors. The alternative behavior needs to be carefully designed so as to be acceptable and even desirable as an approach to the issue being dealt with.


The symposium invited two keynote speakers and 21 technical presentations.
The presenters shared the knowledge, methods, experiments and findings that demonstrate triggers to motivate people and lead to behavior changes. The first keynote presentation given by Prof. Jeremy Bailenson (Stanford University) discussed a line of research that leverages embodied experiences–immersive, multi-sensory, perceptually rich forays into virtual worlds. The second keynote presentation given by Prof. Hiroshi Ishiguro (Osaka University) introduced a series of androids and discussed philosophical questions related to the impact on interactions between human operated androids and collocated people.


The symposium participants discussed concepts and implications of Shikake from various points of view such as psychological or social mechanisms (human-environment interaction process, persuasive mechanism, game mechanism, marketing), implications for design (affordance, trigger categories, physical and virtual collaboration spaces, landscape ostranenie), human roles (curation, collaborative decision making), digital technologies (avatar-mediated interaction, human-computer interaction), and theoretical approaches (answer set prolog, abduction). The diversity of topics are indicators that Shikakeology addresses a new direction of AI that bridges the gap among independent disciplinaries and the fact that AI is embedded in Shikake. One of the takeaways from the workshop is the opportunity for harmony among human, object, environment, and AI which is worth studying as Shikakeology.